Saturday, December 20, 2014
FILLMORE, MILLARD (1800-1874)- 13th president of the united states. family english + had settled in new england early. his father, nathaniel f, made in 1795 a clearing w/ in the town limits of summer hill, cayuga ct, NY. the father went by 'the squire', served as a justice in the nearby settlements. scarce settlers. millard, at 14, rudiments of education, was apprenticed to be a fuller + clothier.(fuller brush man!), to card wood, + to dye + dress cloth from the farmer's houses. 2 yrs before the end of the apprenticeship, he, by a promissory note for $30, bought his 'freedom', + entered a retired lawyer's office as a student + helper at 19. he, of course, received the usual honor extended to young men of his proclivities, to deliver the 4/7 oration before he was 21. in 1820 he made his way to buffalo- then only the germ of the present flourishing city, - + supported himself as a law student by teaching school + aiding the postmaster. in 1823 he was admitted an attorney in the court of common pleas, erie co, + then took up practice in aurora, where his father had moved. hard study, temperance, + integrity gave him a good reputation + moderate success, as he was made an attorney + councellor of the supreme ct of the st. in 1826, he married abigail, daughter of lemeul powers. returning to buffalo, he formed a partnership w/ 2 lawyers, both also distinguished in public life, + was a representative in the st legislature coming in as a anti-mason. in 1832-34 he was a congressman as anti-jackson. from 1836 to 1842 when he declined further service. he represented his district as a member of the whig party. he opposed the annexation of texas as a SLAVE st territory, a warm advocate of internal improvements + a protective tariff, supported j.q. adams in maintaining the right of offering anti-slave petitions, advocated the prohibition by congress of the slave trade between states, + favored the exclusion of slavery from DC. his speech = tone, however, were moderate on these subjects, = he claimed the right to stand free of pledges, + to adjust his opinions(flip-flopper) + discourse by the developement of circumstances. the whigs having the ascendence in congress during the later part he was there, he was made chairman of the house committee of ways + means.
against a strong opposition he carried an appropriation of $30,000 for morse''s telegraph, + secured important provisions in tariffs of 1842. he found some supporters of his proposed nomination as a candidate for vice-p in the whig convention in baltimore. in may 1844, being the whig candidate for gov of NY, he was defeated by silas wright. in 1847 he was made comptroller of NY + an office of manifold responsibilities + duties, + resigned on his election in 11/1848 as zachary taylor's VP. he presided over the senate ably + impartially during 7 mtgs of debate + agitation on the so-called "compromise measures" + mr clay's "omnibus bill", which tho defeated as a whole, substantially succeeded in its general bearing or several slavery issues.
pres taylor died 7/1850 + the next day fillmore took the oath + succeeded him at 51. the cabinet had many distinguished men. webster, corwin, crittenden, graham, hall, kennedy. on the death of webster in 1852, edward everett became sec of state. MF sent a force to protect new mex in a boundary dispute w/ tx. the critical(matter w/ gave its historic significance to his administration was that chief one the class of "compromise" measures. the enactment of there fugitive slave law, blah rendition of "fugitives from labor or service". being instructed by crittenden, his AG, that the bill was not consistent w/ the constitutional section of the habeus corpus. mill signed it anyways, + issued a proclamation calling on the govt officials to enforce it. these measures roused passionate opposition + animosity among whigs + anti-slavery men. the attempt to enforce the ODIOUS law was restricted by mobs in various 'free' states + was made, for the most, ineffectual, the people being resolved to regard it as annulled by the 'higher law'. the fact that mill signed it + tried to enforce it, tho he might plead for constitutional obligation, + patriotic fidelity, made a breath between him + his party. but few question his sincerity or purity of intentions. or his intent to pacify the nation. but the result was sharp + embittered variance of his supporters. his administration considered ing;lorious, if not a failure. in many other matters of high public concern, his official course, as judiculed by his aoppts, the recommendations in his messages, + the projects w/ he devised, was characterized by sound judgment, by humane promptings + practical wisdom. his advice, however was not always followed by congress. that body having approved a plan for the extension of the capital. the press on 7/1851 laid the cornerstone, daniel webster being the orator of the occasion. in the same yr, heinterposedpromptly + effectively in the thwarting the projects of the "FILIBUSTERS", under lopez, fore the INVASION of cuba. commodore perry's expedition to japan, lei tenant lynch to africa, + rheingold to the china seas, w/ exploration to the amazon by herndon + gibbon, may be referred to as engaging the executive ability + wide-forethought as president. his term closed 3/1853. in the fall he had been an unsuccessful candidate for the whigs convention, + yielded to franklin pierce. 3 weeks before
the end, wife died in DC + he returned w/ a son + daughter to buffalo. in 1854 he traveled the south + western states + in `1855/6 he visited europe. quietly declined offer of DCL for oxford. while in rome, informed of his nomination for press of the "native american" party, the other nominees buchanan + freemont. in 1858 he married mrs caloline macintosh of albany, a lady of fortune + culture. he enjoyed a studious retirement among books + friends. he took great interest in the buffalo historical society, which he was press. died 1874, 75 yrs.
FILLAN, ST- accounts of this saint are legendary + conjectural. irish origin. revered early as 8th or 9th c. an ancient monastery in perthshire dedicated to him, was later secularized. the lay abbot was its superior in the reign of william the lion, held high rank in the kingdom. the monastery was restored in the reign of robert bruce. blah blah the staff of crozier which became known as the coxgerach or quigrich, + in the possession of a family named gore or dear, its hereditary guardians. had it in 1425, now in scotland's possession.
Friday, December 19, 2014
FILIGREE- formerly filigrain or filigrane jewelwork, delicate. made w/ threads + beads of gold or silver. word modern. etruscan + greek. blah blah. found in chersonese blah blah blah where when.