Wednesday, December 17, 2014
Tuesday, December 16, 2014
FILELFO, FRANCESCO(1398-1481)- b tolentino. when born, petrarch + the students of florence had already brought the 1st act in the recovery of classic culture to conclusion. they had created an eager apitite for the antique, had disinterred many important roman authors + had freed latin scholarship to some extant from the barbarism of the middle ages. F was destined to carry on their work in latin literature, + important in the recovery of greek culture. his earliest studies in grammar rhetoric, + the latin language were in padua, where he acquired a reputation for learning that in 1417, he was invited to teach eloquence + moral philosophy in venice. according to custom, it was his duty to explain the language + to illustrate the beauties of the principle latin authors cicero + virgil being considered the masters of moral science + elegant diction.
F made his mark at once in venice. admitted to the society of the 1st scholars + the most eminant nobles. in 1419 he was appt from the state as resident secretary to the counsel-general of venice in constantinople/istanbul. an honor + gave him him more knowledge of greek. there immediately tutored by john corysdovas, who was known in italy as the brother of manuel, the 1st greek professor of greek. at c's recommendation, he was employed on several diplomatic missions by the emperor john palaeologus. before long, F married C's daughter theodora. he knew the language + had acquired manuscripts. in 1427 he was invited back to venice + sailed back to be prof again. lectured in many towns + where he served + rivals + greedy vain peripatetic quarrels. 1427 venice plague. off to bologna, but bad politics, off to florence, good spot. translations of aristotle, plutarch, xenophon, +lysias. medici's didn't like him + he fought back. when cosimo exiled by albizzi in 1433, he urged the signori a of florence to sentence him to death. on cosimo's return, F HAD to leave. assignation attempts. off to sienna, but 4 yrs. calls to other cities. 1440 lombardy. milan. party w/ the $ + subserve. blah blah political. splendor. 2nd yr there wife died. married again. orsina osnaga. then she died. 3rd wife, laura magiolini. also misstresses, but loved wives. after filippo maria vicconti died, F backed francesco sforza, duke of milan. wrote epic, when S died. F considered rome. now 77 + crossed the pyrranes there 1475. the terrible sixths IV ruled the vatican + F received an invite to be their rhetoric prof. at 1st pleased, ill humor, wrote a satire on the pope. treasurer, milliard cicada, + soon banned back to milan. wife had died of plague. he died soon after blah blah ok w/medici's + was invited to florence in 1481. 2 weeks succumbed to dysenterry. blah blah 'energy'.
Monday, December 15, 2014
FILANGIERI, GAETANO(1752-1788)- italia jurist + phliospher, b naples 8/1792, 3rd son of cesar, price of arianello + thru his mother, connected to the ducal house of fragnito. gae was from an infant, destined for arms: when only 7, he received a military appoints,net, + at 14 he began active service. his early years gave no promise of further distinction; he seems originally had a dislike for the classics,while his interest in the exact sciences was 1st awakened in his mature years by a trivial circumstance. his brother's tutor had made a mistake in the solution of a math problem, G had been accute to discover + correct the error. from that day, his great intellectual powers began to develope rapidly, + such was his diligence that at 20, besides math, he got competent knowledge of latin + greek, ancient = modern history as well as principles of law, + had written a couple of essays, one on "education reform" + "morals of princes". quit the army + yielded to the wishes of friends rather than his inclinations entered law. at the bar his knowledge
= eloquence, he was successful + special circumstances helped his advancement. in 1774, king charles of naples, at the insistance of minister tanucci, had issued a much needed ordinance to reform abuses in the administration of justice. the welcomed murmurs of the bar, + now became the advocate
+ published a defense of the royal decree founded on law + equity. got warm commendation of tanucci, who encouraged the author to pursue his course, through his influence + that of his uncle, archbishop of palermo, he received in 1777 honorable appt at court; but his residence there didn't interrupt studies + continued his great work, la scienza della legislation. the 1st + 2nd books continueing an exposition + a discussion of political + economic laws pub 1780. successful, thru europe. altho in the course of his observations he had found it necessary to point out many faults by his own govt. he so skillfully wrote it, he did not offend + promoted by the king to a commandery in the royal order of constatine. in 1783 he married caroline von freudel, + in order for more domestic happiness w/ consent of king he resigned all military appts + court offices + went to cava to live + write. 3rd book of his scienza about criminal jurisprudence. his others did not rile the interest + influencial class, but in the 3rd, his suggestion that the ROMAN CATH CHURCH needed reform got him censure of the clerics + condemned in 1784. the next yr published 3 books, but his health impaired. in 1787, feed IV summonsed him to naples to assist the councils of finance. but severe domestic misfortunes + overwork, he had to withdraw, had finished the 1st pt of 5th book on religion when he died 7/1788. notes on his book hint at the dangers of the 'SUPERSTITION'. the EVILS OF AN IGNORANT, VENAL, EXCESSIVELY WEALTHY CLERGY(CORPS/2%). blah blah tho unfinished, it had considerable influence in europe. esp italy.