Saturday, September 01, 2012
Up front: The word “puzzling” was used because I believe the box dates to somewhere around 1885 to 1915, but the hinges are much older. I’m not sure when dovetailing was first done by someone’s inventive machine, and I’m not even certain what to call those dovetails. “Rabbit-Ear” has been used, and so has “flat-tab.”
hanging by the feet between 2 starving dogs or wolves. usually for jews condemned for minor crimes. german or swiss. early 1500's.
Friday, August 31, 2012
FRANCE....... war #1- the war of 1562. phil of spain interfered on 1 side- queen elizabeth w/ the calvinist german prince, on the other, showed that the huguenots were by far weaker. . the english troops at havre enabled them to command the lower seine up to rouen. but the other party, after a long siege w/ cost antony of navarre his life, took that place + relieved paris of anxiety. the huguenots had also spread far + wide over the south + west, occupying orleans; the bridge or orleans was their point of junction between poitou + germany. while the strength of the catholics lay to the east, in picardy, + at paris, the huguenots power in the south + west. conde commander at orleans, supported by german allies made an attempt on paris, but paris to strong, turned to the west, intending to meet brits from havre. montmorency caught him at preux' + in the battle the marshal of france, st andre perished; conde captured by the Catholics, mont m, by the huguenots. coligny, the admiral, retreated skillfully to the loire; the duke of guise, remained as sole head of the Catholics. going on, he sieged orleans, + there he fell to a huguenot assassin. both sides had suffered, + queen ma wanted to enterprise peace; the edict of amboise(3/1563) closed the war, allowing calvinists freedom to worship in their towns some other stuff. 3 yrs quiet, tho a cold war + he high Catholics tried hard to make catharine to sacrifice l'hopital + punish the huguenots. blah blah intrigues blah. calvinists + Catholics in netherlands. Catholics get an army fall 1567 REVOLT w/ netherlanders conde + the chatillons beleaguered paris from the north, + battle of st denis, anne of montmorency killed. the huguenots defeated + withdrew. conde marched east to join germans coming to aid him. the peace of lougjumeau 3/158 closed the 2nd war + back to cold war. aristocratic resistance against catholic sovereigns, against "the catholic reaction" proved hollow. in germany + the netherlands + france, the protestants cause, seemed to fail; not until religion mixed w/ political rights + FREEDOM, was there a new spirit.
peace of longjumeau(sp) no security to huguenots. nobles feared assassins. an attempt to seize conde + coligny failed + irritated their side; cardinal chatillon escaped to england. jeanne of navarre + her son henry took reenge at la rochelle, l' hopital was dismissed. the court + queen-ma seemed to lose moderation + ready to rid france of huguenots, fair or foul. war for sure.
conde strong w brit + low country allies + nobles + potestant people talk of depossing valois. he was killed early 159 at battle of jarnac. coligny at dreux saved the remnants of the huguenots. conde's death not fatal + made room for henry of navarre. jeanne hearing, came to jarnac, + presented henry + the young prince of conde, a mere child -her gallant bearing + the soldier spirit of coligny restored them, but duke of anjou, king's younger brother caught them. war war blah blah. 8/1570 peace of st germain-en-laze end of 3rd war + end of 1st period.
2. it was the most favorable peace the huguenots had won yet; it secured 4 strongholds; the catholics dissatisfied; they could not sympathize w/ the queen-ma in her alar of phil II's growing strength, head of euro catholics; they dreaded the existence + growing influence of a party now. getting the nickname politoques(cafateria catholics)). these were the large body of french gentlemen who loved the honor of their country rather than their religion, + who, tho catholic, were moderate + tolerant. the day will come when they assert themselves as the true patriots + supporting henry IV, find out a solution for their times. on the other hand, huguenots frightened by the peace, + regarded its favorable terms as baits + snares. they withdrew sullenly to larochelle; the friendly attitue of charles IX alarmed them een moe; scarcely calmed when ch IX allied w/ austria, then not friendly w/ spain. a pair of marriages proposed by the court amzed them more. the duke of anjou marry queen elizabeth-henry of navarre to margaret of valois, the king's sister. ch IX hoped thus to be rid of 2 brothers he didn't like, + to win support against spain, by the other , bring civil war to an end. plans made out so convinced of good faith was the prudent+ sagacious william of orange, who refused good terms offered by spain. whatever queen-ma wanted, ch IX was sincere. catherine queen-ma cared more for her favorite son, henry of anjou, than the king, who she despised; she took no pleasure in the schemes helping netherlands in their revolt, by w/ ch IX hoped to occupy his huguenot subjects, while he had peace at home.