Saturday, September 15, 2012
FRNCE......1st at the states-general- church then in 1 chamber were met by the king who addressed them + then sent them to their groups w/ the problems he chose to address. then after te discussed, got them i group again. blah blah 12 pass blah blah ' lit de justice'-a bed of justice. blah blahdays d' etats blah blah BLAH!
the states-general of 1614 did nothing; the dutifully represented, the jealousies, + ill-will between orders + brok e up confused. armand du plesis of richelieu, bishop of lancon was the orator of the
clergy. in 1615 louis XIII married anne of austria, who later played a considerable problem of the fronde, for 2 years marshall ancre steered his way between the young king, who didn't care about him- his mother's favorite, not his, - the princes of the blood, + the huguenots. in 1617 the new favorite of the king, charles d'albert, count of luynes, overthrew + killed him;leonora galigai, his wife, was executed as a sorceress. the queen-ma + richelieu both fell. she went to blois, he to luconi, the young king, weak + frivolousfell into the hands of the noblesse. after a time the nobles were as little pleased w/ luyres, + rallied round the court of maryde medici at agresso. richelieu whose abilities were recognized, was charged by luynes w/ the task of reconciling the king + queen-ma; he succeeded w/ treaty of angers 1620 in averting civil war. then luynes thinking to amuse the king, marched w/ him to dearn, where the inhabitants suddenly bereft in 1617 of their rights as Protestants were in revolt + fervent in the south + west, the huguenots uneasy + suspicious; incidents of war in bohemia, where calvinists had been crushed + political changes in the united provinces, excited them. they claimed rights of the edict of nantes. in 1621 they held an assembly at the capital, la rochelle, + made a kind of declaration of independence. they divided their 700 congregations thru france into 8 circles, after german fashion, indicating a decentralization, w/ was offensive to the court + the french people; they arranged their own levies of men + $, + in fact went far towards organizing the republic of reformed churches of france+ bearn". they named the duke of bouillon head + made lesdigieres most plentiful offers. but refused to join + the duke of rohan + his brother became heads of the huguenots movement. better government principles. the nobless, however, not convnced + littl traction. the kingenergeticly took command against them + encouragd the army to be extra cruel(sudan/pol pot/etc etc etc). for he was 'weak' + heartless. at the siege of montauban, he failed completely + had to retreat. soon after at the end of 1621 luynes died, camp fever(cholera?). the king was very weary of him, was happy to hear of it.
3 cages hanging since the early 1500's from the apse of the cathedral of munster, switzerland.
Friday, September 14, 2012
FRANCE.....bishop + abbots + etc, nobles,sat w/ holders of fiefs; 3rd estate(except in 1789) were elected deputies-no power, + ho just before the revolution, the parliament of paris opened the way to great changes by declaring that taxes could only be legally voted on by the states-general, they had very little authority, in only a few cases did they sanction taxes or vote subsidies; the royal power found it more convenient, till the bankrupt STATE OF THE COUNTRY(DEFICITS/DEBT). louis XVI compelled it to call on the estates for help, to arrange the taxation as it thought good. the great doctrine of the relation between between tax PAING + political power was UNKNOWN in france(grover norquist-GOP land). the true function of the estates seemed limited to expressions of opinion on points the king made + telling him their complaints, made by cashiers or "quires" from the country. they could not remedy the people, all they could do was inform the king, who did what he wanted about them.