Saturday, March 30, 2013
FERDINAND VII- continued
this was not napoleons plan; + madrid was occupied 4 days after by the french troops under murat. by the representations of the later, both charles + ferd induced to seek a personal interview w/ napoleon at bayonne, + submit to his arbitration their rival claims. the result, the treaty of bayonne 5/1808 by chuck + napoleon, by w/ charles renounced the throne. next ferd forced to do the same + joseph bonaparte d declared king. ferd now interned at valencay(indre), where he stayed during the whole war of spanish independence, receiving from napoleon an allowance of 600,000 francs. the letters he wrote to NB were far from being patriotic. he had nothing but compliments fot joseph.(supplication!)
the victory of wellington at vittoria 6/1813, followed by his invasion of france, induced NB to treat ferd more like an equal + ultimately the throne on his agreeing to sign a convention to which he had to expel the british from spain + to pardon joseph B(viche') + be harmonious to france on his return to spain 3/1814. the cortes declined to recognize him until he swore to the constitution w/ had been promulgated at cadiz in 1812, but listening to the counsels of the "servile" party, he 1st evaded + after rejected this demand. on 5/4/1814 he, by the decree of valencia, annulled the 1812 constitution + all enactments made by the cortes when he was absent. on 5/30/1814 he issued his decree of proscription + perpetual exile against the afrancesados(viche) to joseph B. on 7/21 he re-established the INQUISITION w/ ALL ITS POWERS UNDER TORQUEMADA(nobody expected that) + began a HOT CRUSADE against LIBERALISM, or 'constitutionalism" in which no weapon of confiscation or imprisonment, or banishment, or execution, which DESPOTISM could wield was left unused. this policy of absolutist"camarilla" was for some time interrupted by a revolutionary party headed by quiroga + riego at cabesas de san juan, near cadiz, which on 1/1/1820, caused the constitution of 1812 to be proclaimed. this insurrection gaining strength, the king, the king was compelled to make concession after concession, until 3/9 he professed entire acceptance of the 1812 constitution, abolished the INQUISITION, banished the JESUITS, + restored freedom of the press. the cortes reassembled + those banished returned. but soon king showed his false submission hidden + openly did all he could to encourage opposition, until his last, in 7/1822, the royal guards broke out in open revlt w/ cries for "the absolute king"(teabags) for while they were repressed by the constitutionalists, but meanwhile the state of the peninsula had attracted the attention of the holy alliance + at the congress of verona 8 -12/1822, it was agreed to send a french army into spain "to deliver ferd from slavery". madrid was entered 5/1823, the cortes withdrew to seville, where ferd was declared incapable of governing, + a regency was appointed. driven by the invaders to cadiz, + there compelled to surrender. the cortes yielded govt to ferd, who promised amnesty, he broke his promise the nest day(duh) + annulled everything since 1820.
Friday, March 29, 2013
some nice flatware tho....
Facts & Feelings
The metal does not take a magnet, and you will notice areas of verdigris in crevices here and there all over the piece.
It was molded in at least three sections.
A line travels around the neck of the skinny lizard. It is either a flaw or a very old and beautifully accomplished repair. (Keep your panties on. I’ll show you close-ups.)